Chapter 4 : WinDi Dictionary.
By creating a dictionary translating into seven languages, in the form of a software, we achieved a double objective.
First of all, we wanted to provide a high-quality asset (21 dictionaries) that is easy and pleasant to use for people who are familiar with PC's ie. translators, students, businessmen, secretaries, ... all those who, due to their occupation, have to translate texts or understand foreign documents.
Our second aim was to offer the users of WinDi (Windows Dictionary) a greater ease in looking up words : this is possible thanks to all of the current advancements of computer science.
This dictionary, entirely made by teams of translators working in their mother tongue, contains more than 40,000 words and expressions in each language. WinDi contains 29,000 'general' words and 11,000 'specific' words belonging to the fields of finance, business, banking, stock exchange, insurance, accounting, etc. In each language, several translations are often given for a same word, according to its various meanings (polysemy). However, slang, highly technical and colloquial words have not been included.
Each word appears with its grammatical class (noun, article, ...). If it is a noun, its gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and the appropriate article (if necessary) are noted. If it is a verb, it will be specified whether it is regular or irregular, separable or inseparable (German and Dutch particle verbs). It should also be added that each noun is preceded by the definite article when necessary. As far as the English language is concerned, the gender of nouns is not specified due to the fact that in most cases they are neuter. Only literary English uses masculine and feminine genders for objects; otherwise, 'he' or 'she' is only used when referring to a man or a woman, a male or a female animal.
Moreover, a PC dictionary has many advantages over other translation aids, such as:
Speed : WinDi is not only accessible from any Windows application, but it can also display the translation you have been looking for in the seven languages of the dictionary immediately after having asked for it !
Flexibility: it is very easy to transfer one (or several) words out of the dictionary to another Windows application and vice versa. So, you can introduce your translation in the text you are writing, whenever you want.
Dependability: WinDi also has a 'Last Call' function. The dictionary always opens with the last word that has been looked up. If WinDi is used in a network, this function is independent in regard to the other users.
Ease: WinDi was conceived of with the user in mind and offers simple and intuitive use.
This chapter systematically describes the two screens of WinDi Dictionaries, according to the moves of the user. It also gives a few examples and some advice on how to use the dictionary.
This chapter accurately describes the multilingual display with two screens. WinDi Dictionary also gives access to two other displays: multilingual display with one screen and bilingual display with one screen (see Additional WinDi screens, chapter 11.1). The user can choose one of these displays at all times by using the 'setup' function available on the first screen of WinDi Dictionary ('S' button) (see field 11 in screen below)
4.1. How to gain access to WinDi Dictionary.
Click on the WinDi icon located in the 'WinDi Translation Help' application group, or open the WinDi Menu from within any Windows application (wordprocessing, ...)
When the dictionary loads itself in the memory, it positions itself where you left it at the time of your last use (if it is the first use, it positions itself on the first English word beginning with the letter 'A').
4.2. First screen : Looking up the word to translate.
4.2.1. Selection of the language of the word to translate (source language). (fields 3 and 4, screen 1)
The source language selected by default is the one you have chosen in the WinDi Menu. To modify it, click in field 4 to choose one of the seven languages of WinDi. The phylactery in field 3 indicates what source language is selected. The red frame surrounding field 4 indicates that all these languages are possible source languages.
4.2.2. WinDi Dictionary communicates in the language of your choice. (field 2, screen 1)
The user interface language can be selected by means of the 'S' (Setup) icon available from theWinDi Menu. The grey phylactery in field 2 reminds you what language has been selected. If you want to modify this language, leave first WinDi Dictionary, call the 'Setup' function, select another language and reload WinDi Dictionary.
4.2.3. Entering / selecting the word to translate. (field 3 and field 1, screen 1)
Write in field 3, even partly, the word you want to translate. Automatically, WinDi starts looking it up and becomes more and more specific with each letter you type in. The entered word quickly appears on the window in field 1, surrounded by the other words of the dictionary in alphabetical order.
To travel in the dictionary, use scroll bar in field 1 or write another word in field 3.
To enter or delete a word, the usual methods of Windows are operational (please refer to your Windows manual for further information).
The '*' search character : You can enter in field 3 any chain of characters (min. 3 characters) and add the * character afterwards. This way, WinDi will look for all words containing this chain of characters (even if it is present at the middle of the word), and display these words in field 1, at the place of the dictionary. This is very interesting for languages as Dutch or German that 'paste' words together. For example, having opened the German dictionary, if you type the word 'Schalter' followed by a * (the * character does not appear in the encoding field when you type it, however it starts the searching), after a few seconds you will get in field 1 the different 'Schalter' entries but also the word 'Bankschalter' which is normally sorted on the 'B' character. This function is also interesting when looking up all words belonging to a special context. For example, enter (zool.)* in field 3 to get all words followed by the (zool.) contextual information. If you have added new words in WinDi and had them followed by a special information specifying that you are the one who added these new words, for example (me), then you can retrieve all your encodings by entering (me)* in field 3.
In order to come back to the 'classical' search, just enter a new word in field 3.
4.2.4. How to get the translations. (fields 3 and 5, screen 1)
For each word, WinDi gives you, at the same time, the corresponding translations in the other six languages (see paragraph 3 of this chapter).
Three methods enable you to open the dictionary and read the translations :
- Click on the 'dictionary' button in field 5 (this button does not exist in the other two displays, i.e. multilingual display with one screen and bilingual display with one screen).
- Press 'Enter' after having introduced the word in field 3 (The dictionary will open if the entered word exists.)
- Click twice on a word in field 1.
4.2.5. WinDi in communication with other Windows applications. (field 9, screen 1)
When WinDi is linked to another Windows application (wordprocessing,...), the button in field 9 corresponds to the 'Paste' function and the button to the 'Copy' function, well-known in Windows. See the examples on how to use them in paragraph 4 of this chapter.
4.2.6. How to gain access to the WinDi Encoding module. (field 8, screen 1)
Click on field 8 ('tools' icon) to gain access to the WinDi Encoding module, allowing you to add your own vocabulary into the WinDi database. Please refer to chap. 6 of this manual more further information about the Encoding module.
4.2.7. WinDi Dictionary in communication with other WinDi applications. (field 6, screen 1)
The 'Menu' icon in field 6 gives access to all other WinDi applications: understanding help, conjugation, sentence translation, translation project manager and browser. The 'loudspeaker' icon beside the clipboard icons (field 9) gives access to the Voice for WinDi module (text-to-speech).
4.2.8. Help. (field 10, screen 1)
Click on the question mark to get a text quickly reminding you the functions of the first screen of WinDi Dictionaries.
4.2.9. How to modify the dictionary display. (field 11, screen 1)
Clicking on the 'S' button in field 11 gives you access to a series of parameters. WinDi supports three different displays: multilingual with two screens, multilingual with one screen and bilingual with one screen.
- Multilingual display with two screens: select the 'Short' and '1-7' (1 language into 7 languages) options.
- Multilingual display with one screen: select the 'Complete' and '1-7' options. Attention: this display is only available if your screen resolution is of 800 X 600 min. If your screen resolution is lower than that, you will automatically gain access to the multilingual display with two screens. However, you will be able to choose between the multilingual display with one screen and the bilingual display with one screen.
- Bilingual display with one screen: select the 'Short' and '1-1' (1 language into 1 language) options. In this case and contrarily to the other displays, you will have to select the target language (see 'language' button on the upper left corner of the bilingual screen).
All buttons and icons work exactly the same way in these different displays: clipboard functions, green arrows, 'Setup' button, 'Conjugation and Grammar' button, 'Menu' icon, etc.
4.2.10. How to leave WinDi Dictionary. (field 7, screen 1)
- Click with the left button of the mouse in field 7 (door) to keep WinDi Dictionary in RAM for later instant use. WinDi Dictionary is then minimized but remains an achievable task in Windows thanks to the WinDi Menu (see paragraph 1 of this chapter 'How to gain access to WinDi ?').
- Click anywhere on the screen, outside the window of WinDi Dictionary, to get the same result.
- Click with the right button of the mouse in field 7 (door) in order to completely unload WinDi Dictionary from the PC.
- How many times have you looked a word up in your 'paper' dictionary, read it, closed the book ... and had to reopen it because you had forgotten the spelling ? If this misfortune happens to you with WinDi Dictionary, the 'LAST CALL' function will come in very handy : indeed, this function restores the situation of your last search in each language, when calling WinDi Dictionary again. On the first screen, the last word for which you have looked up the translations appears in field 3 (screen 1), whatever language you have started to work in. If you are working in a network, WinDi Dictionary restores the situation specific to each user.
4.3. Second screen : visualization of the translations.
(this screen is only available in the multilingual display with two screens)
Note : the languages on screen 2 were classified according to the two large Germanic and Romance families and sub-classified in alphabetical order within these families.
The word you are looking up and have selected on screen 1 (see paragraph 2 of this chapter) is surrounded by a red frame (field 2 - screen 2), indicating the source language. In this example, the selected word is a word from the English dictionary. The red frame indicates the source language and the purple frame indicates the target language, according to your selection in the WinDi Menu or in WinDi Dictionaries itself.
4.3.1 Grammatical / context specifications of the translations. (field 1, screen 2)
WinDi Dictionary indicates with precision the kind of word you have selected : article, conjunction, preposition, pronoun, adverb, adjective, common noun (masculine, feminine or neuter - singular or plural), proper noun (with the same specifications as for the common noun), verb (impersonal - (ir)regular - with a separable or an inseparable particle for German and Dutch), and this in the language you have chosen.
The definite article of the nouns is provided for all languages.
Contexts appear between brackets each time the meaning of a given word has to be precised. The context can be an abbreviation (tech., bot., anat., etc., see chap. "Abbreviations used in the WinDi Dictionary") or a detailed explanation. Concerning verbs, the (tr.) comment for "transitive verb" or (i.v.) for "intransitive verb" appears very often. A "transitive" verb can be directly followed by a complement (direct complement), while an "intransitive" verb has to be directly followed by a preposition before the complement (indirect complement). These indications are very important and will help you to make high-quality translations.
In the example on screen 2, the grammatical comments are in English. To obtain them in another language, click on the 'S' (setup) icon available from the WinDi Menu, select another language and reload WinDi Dictionary.
4.3.2. Selection of the preceding or the following words. (field 6, screen 2)
The buttons enable you to quickly visualize the words preceding or following the one surrounded by the red frame in field 2, which is very useful when several translations are given for a word.
4.3.3. Transfer into another Windows application. (field 4, screen 2)
Just click on one of the buttons (field 4) corresponding to the 'Copy' function in order to transfer a word from WinDi into another Windows application. See examples in Chap. 4.4.
4.3.4. How to close the dictionary, return to screen 1.
Click anywhere on the screen (except on the buttons) to come back to screen 1. If you want to leave WinDi Dictionary, please read paragraph 2.10 of this chapter.
4.3.5. Help and abbreviations. (field 7, screen 2)
Click on the question mark to obtain the list of abbreviations used by WinDi Dictionary and their meaning, and a text quickly reminding you the functions of the second screen of WinDi Dictionary.
4.4. WinDi Dictionary in communication with other WINDOWS applications : examples.
The two and buttons in field 9 on screen 1 and in field 4 on screen 2 enable you to have a direct relation with other Windows application, ie. the transfer of words between WinDi and another application. Here, a wordprocessing exercise is used as a practical example.
Imagine you have a text in a foreign language on screen. You wish to know the meaning of a word. Here is the easy and fast method suggested by WinDi :
a. By means of the 'Copy' function (generally in the 'Edit' menu), copy the word into the clipboard.
b. Call WinDi. Do not forget to be in the dictionary of the language of the word you are looking up. If this is not the case, just click on one of the language icons before the importation of the word, in order to change the source language (see paragraph 2.1 of this chapter.).
c. Click on the button in field 9 of screen 1. The word appears in field 3.
d. If the word exists, you can open the dictionary ('Enter' or click on the 'dictionary' button) to read the translations of the word you were looking up.
e. Come back to your text by clicking on the door (field 7, screen 1).
In your application, you are writing a text in a foreign language. You are looking up the translation of a word and you wish to immediately integrate it in your text. Here is the method suggested by WinDi:
a. Call the dictionary.
b. Choose the source language in field 4 on the first screen.
c. Enter the word to look up in field 3 on the same screen.
d. Open the dictionary to read the translations.
e. On screen 2, click on the button in the field corresponding to the wanted translation. WinDi saves your translations in the clipboard.
f. Leave WinDi (see paragraph 2.10 in this chapter.).
g. Now you are back in your text, put the cursor where you want and import your translation by means of the 'Paste' function usually available in the 'Edit' menu.
Imagine you are working in a text, whether foreign or not. You are hesitating over the spelling of a word, or you wish to check a word, and you want to directly import the result of your search in your text.
a. Call WinDi.
b. Choose the source language in field 4 (see paragraph 2.1. in this chapter).
c. When having found the word you were looking up, open the dictionary (see paragraph 2.3 in this chapter).
d. Click on the button in the field of the language of the word you want to copy: the word is copied into the clipboard, and you will be able to import it in your text by means of the 'Paste' function of Windows.
Please note that these import-export functions are not necessary anymore if you choose to work in the WinDi Translation Help 'Double Editor'. In that case, WinDi retrieves the translation of each word contained in your source text by comparing them with the WinDi database.
Please refer to Chap. III of this manual for further explanations.
4.5. Looking up a word.
4.5.1. Distinctive features in German and in Dutch.
WinDi pays particular attention to particle (or prefixe) verbs : for each particle verb, it is specified whether the particle is separable from the verb (fi. : aus_breiten) or inseparable (fi. : erzählen).
If the particle of the verb is separable, there are two methods enabling you to find the translation : the first one is to write down the infinitive form of the verb you wish to translate (fi. anmachen). The second method consists in writing the verb without its particle (fi. machen).
In this last case, the window of the first screen displays the word, with or without a particle, as many times as it exists in the dictionary. If you are not familiar with German or Dutch, this technique will enable you to find the verb you are looking up more easily, as it is not necessary to know the exact infinitive form. Hence, having written 'machen', you will have the choice between 'machen', 'abmachen', 'anmachen', 'durchmachen', 'mitmachen', 'vormachen', etc.
Moreover, it is very interesting to possess such a list as you are able to see the various variations in meaning brought about by the particles of a same verb. Each separable particle is immediately followed by the sign '_' (fi.: an_machen, wiederauf_leben,...). However, if you decide to look up a particle verb from its infinitive form, WinDi will display this verb as such (fi. : anmachen) and will also indicate if this verb with a separable particle is regular or not. It is the only case where the particle is not separated from the verb by the sign '_'.
4.5.2. Distinctive features in English.
WinDi will give you the translation of an English verb if you encode it without 'to'. Just write 'seek', never 'to seek'. The gender of English nouns is never specified : indeed, in the vast majority of cases, they are neuter and you should therefore use the pronoun 'it'. The pronouns 'he' and 'she' are only used when referring to a man or a woman, a male or a female animal. Only literary English uses masculine and feminine genders for objects.
4.5.3. Regular or irregular verbs.
What rules do we follow when a verb is said to be regular or irregular ? This is what we wish to explain here. They are not grammatical rules but rather conventions usually used when foreigners learn a language.
22.214.171.124. In German.
A verb is regular if its primitive tenses follow the following rule (fi. : reisen)
- preterite : unchanged radical + 'te' (1st. pers. sg.) (fi. : ich reis-te)
- past participle : 'ge' + unchanged radical + 't' (fi. : ge-reis-t).
ATTENTION : verbs ending in '-ieren' (fi. : telefonieren), are also regular, despite having a different past participle (unchanged radical + 't' (fi. : telefonier-t).
All other verbs are irregular (fi. : biegen - bog - gebogen).
126.96.36.199. In English.
A verb is regular if its primitive tenses follow this rule (fi. : to paint, to create) :
- Preterite : present infinitive + 'ed' or 'd' (fi. : I paint-ed, I create-d)
- Past participle : present infinitive + 'ed' or 'd' (fi. : paint-ed, create-d).
All other verbs are irregular (fi. : to cut - cut - cut).
188.8.131.52. In Dutch.
A verb is regular if it follows one of the following rules (fi. leren, werken) :
- Preterite : unchanged radical + 'de' or 'te' (sing.) (fi. : ik leer-de, ik werk-te)
- Past participle : 'ge' + unchanged radical + 'd' or 't' (fi. : ge-leer-d, ge-werk-t).
All other verbs are irregular (fi. : kopen - kocht - gekocht).
184.108.40.206. In French.
The verbs ending in '-er' that conjugate like 'aim-er' and those ending in '-ir' that conjugate like 'fin-ir' are regular; all others are irregular.
ATTENTION : verbs that change their spelling when conjugated are also considered to be irregular (fi. : céder : je cède, ...; manger : je mangeais, ...).
220.127.116.11. In Italian.
The verbs ending in '-are' that conjugate like 'am-are', the verbs ending in '-ere' that conjugate like 'tem-ere' and those ending in '-ire' that follow the pattern 'fin-ire' are regular. All other verbs are irregular.
18.104.22.168. In Spanish.
Spanish has three conjugation patterns : verbs in '-ar' (habl-ar), in '-er' (com-er) and in '-ir' (viv-ir). The verbs that conjugate according to these patterns are regular, all the others are irregular.
ATTENTION : all verbs with a change in spelling are also considered to be irregular. The main ones end in: -car (fi. : sacar), -gar (fi. : pagar), -zar (fi. : empezar), -cer (fi : nacer), -ger (fi. : proteger), -eer (fi. : creer), -cir (fi. : producir), -gir (fi. : dirigir) and -guir (fi. : distinguir).
22.214.171.124. In Portuguese.
Portuguese has three conjugation patterns : verbs in '-ar' (compr-ar) and -'iar' (anunc-iar), in '-er' (vend-er) and in '-ir' (garant-ir). The verbs that conjugate according to these patterns are regular, all the others are irregular.
ATTENTION : all verbs with a change in spelling are also considered to be irregular.
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